Hemorrhoids are swollen and inflamed veins in the anus and rectum that can cause pain, itching, and bleeding. They are part of normal human anatomy, but when they become inflamed or swollen, they can cause significant discomfort.

Hemorrhoids are divided into two types - internal and external. In today's article we will look at the main causes and factors of their occurrence.


What causes hemorrhoids?


Hemorrhoids can be caused by various factors that increase the pressure on the veins in the region of the rectum and anus.


Here are some of them:


1. Constipation and straining during bowel movements


Constipation is one of the main risk factors for the development of hemorrhoids. When stools are hard and dry, they make it difficult to pass a bowel movement, which strains and increases pressure on the veins in the rectum and anus. This pressure can cause the veins to dilate and become inflamed, leading to the formation of hemorrhoids. Straining during bowel movements damages the venous structure, which can lead to the frequent occurrence of hemorrhoids (a chronic problem).


2. A low-fiber diet


Fiber helps to form soft and bulky stools, which makes it easier to pass through the intestines and reduces the need to strain during bowel movements. Not having enough fiber in the diet leads to hard and dry stools that cause constipation and straining. Excessive consumption of processed foods, sugars and fats combined with insufficient fluid intake can also contribute to the development of hemorrhoids.


3. Sedentary lifestyle


Prolonged sitting, especially on hard surfaces, increases the pressure on the veins in the anus and rectum. This can lead to their expansion and inflammation. Lack of physical activity also slows intestinal peristalsis, which increases the risk of constipation.


4. Pregnancy




Pregnancy significantly increases the risk of developing hemorrhoids. The growing uterus puts pressure on the veins in the pelvic area and lower abdomen, which makes it difficult for blood circulation and causes the veins to dilate. Hormonal changes during pregnancy also play a role, relaxing the vein walls and making them more prone to dilation and inflammation. Constipation, which often accompanies pregnancy due to hormonal changes and reduced physical activity, further increases the risk of hemorrhoids.


5. Overweight


Being overweight puts extra pressure on the veins in the lower body, including the veins in the anus and rectum. Losing weight through a healthy diet and regular exercise can help prevent hemorrhoids and improve overall health.


6. Advanced age


As we age, the risk of developing hemorrhoids increases. This is due to the weakening of the tissues that support the veins in the rectum and anus. Over time, these tissues lose their elasticity and become more prone to expansion and inflammation. Older people often suffer from chronic constipation and other digestive problems, which also contribute to the development of hemorrhoids.


7. Genetic predisposition


If there is a family history of hemorrhoids, you are more likely to develop the same condition. Hereditary factors may include weakness of the venous walls or a tendency to constipation.


8. Chronic diarrhea


Chronic diarrhea can be just as damaging to the veins in the anal area as constipation. Constant irritation and inflammation of the anus caused by frequent bowel movements can increase pressure on the veins. Chronic diarrhea can be the result of various conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease, infections, or intolerance to certain foods.


9. Heavy physical exertion


Heavy physical exertion


Heavy physical exertion, especially if not performed correctly, puts strain on the veins in the anus and rectum. Occupations or activities that involve frequent and intense lifting of weights, such as construction, weightlifting or even frequent housework, can significantly increase the risk of hemorrhoids.


10. Prolonged sitting on the toilet


Sitting on the toilet for a long time can increase the pressure on the veins in the anal area, especially if this time is extended due to reading a book, using mobile devices or simply because a person is distracted. Limit the time you spend sitting on the throne.


Symptoms of hemorrhoids


Hemorrhoids can cause a variety of symptoms that vary in severity and duration. Understanding these symptoms can help with timely diagnosis and treatment:


  • Pain and discomfort - pain is usually felt in the area of ​​the anus, especially during bowel movements;
  • Itching and irritation - itching is a common symptom caused by irritation of the skin around the anus. This irritation may be due to mucus leakage or a partial bowel movement. Scratching the itchy area can worsen the condition and lead to inflammation and infection;
  • Bleeding – Bleeding is one of the most common symptoms of hemorrhoids. It usually shows up as bright red blood on the toilet paper or in the toilet after a bowel movement. Persistent bleeding can lead to anemia, which requires medical attention;
  • Swelling - External hemorrhoids can feel like hard lumps that are painful to the touch. This swelling can be caused by inflammation and pooling of blood in the veins;
  • Mucus in stools.


Prevention and treatment


Prevention and treatment of hemorrhoids include various strategies that can help relieve symptoms and prevent future problems:


1. A healthy diet


Including enough fiber in your diet helps facilitate bowel movements and prevent constipation. Fiber can be obtained through fruits, vegetables, whole grains and legumes. In addition, it is important to drink enough water to keep the body hydrated and to facilitate digestion.


2. Regular physical activity


Regular physical activity is important to maintain a healthy digestive system and prevent constipation. Exercise such as walking, running, swimming and yoga can stimulate bowel movements and reduce pressure on the veins in the rectum and anus.


3. Maintaining a healthy weight


Maintaining a healthy weight


Maintaining a healthy weight is essential to prevent hemorrhoids. This can be achieved through a balanced diet and regular physical activity.


4. Correct hygiene in the area of ​​the anus


Using soft toilet paper and avoiding scented products can reduce the risk of irritation. In some cases, using alcohol-free wet wipes or gentle cleansers can be helpful.


5. Lifestyle changes


Take regular breaks if you work mostly sitting down. Avoid prolonged sitting on the toilet and heavy physical exertion.


6. Medical treatment


If the symptoms of hemorrhoids do not improve with home remedies, a doctor's consultation is necessary. There are various medical procedures and medications that can help treat hemorrhoids:

  • Medications - creams, ointments and suppositories containing hydrocortisone or other anti-inflammatory ingredients can relieve pain and itching;
  • Minimally invasive procedures - rubber band ligation, sclerotherapy and infrared coagulation;
  • Surgical interventions - in severe cases, hemorrhoidectomy (removal of hemorrhoids) or hemorrhoidopexy (fixation of hemorrhoids) may be necessary.


Hemorrhoids are a common problem that can be painful and uncomfortable. Understanding their causes and taking preventive measures can help reduce the risk and relieve symptoms.


Maintaining a healthy lifestyle, regular physical activity and proper hygiene are key to maintaining health and preventing hemorrhoids.



1. WebMD: Hemorrhoids: Symptoms, causes and treatment (27 Май 2024)
2. Healthline: Causes of Hemorrhoids and Tips for Prevention (27 Май 2024)